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passed, and the water is not used for drinking, the dis- posal of sewage by turning it into such water is entirely unobjectionable, and by far the most satisfactory method possible. Where the sewage of a town is entering the public water-supply of a neighboring town, or worse yet, its own supply, the problem is entirely different. The removal of the organic matters of the sewage becomes a sec- ondary, though still an important matter, while the re- moval of those germs of disease, which would otherwise work such mischief among the consumers of water, be- comes the one important point. The experiments undertaken by the Massachusetts State Board of Health at the Lawrence Experiment Station, some six years ago, indicated that the local conditions in Massachusetts would allow the treatment of sewage upon land even wth more favorable results, both as to quantity of sewage treated, and quality of effluent obtained, than had been supposed to be the case from a study of Eu- ropean practice. It is impossible, by any combination of chemicals, to secure a purification which Lovegra Online approaches, even remotely, the Lovegra Tablets result obtained by land treatment; but when the prob- lem is simply to keep the water into which the sewage flows reasonably clean, the result, with careful manipula- tion, is quite satisfactory. When, however, the treated October 28, 1893] MEDICAL RECORD. 569 sewage finds its way into the source of the public water- supply, the effluent produced by even the most Generic Lovegra complete chemical precipitation Lovegra For Women cannot be regarded as an entirely unobjectionable addition, and such water should be fur- ther treated by filtration before use. The Collection and Disposition of Animal and Vege- table Waste in the City of Milwaukee, by Dr. U. O. B. AViNGATE, Commissioner of Health of Milwaukee. As early as 1879 the city of Milwaukee began to grapple with the garbage problem, and it has been a long and serious struggle until a recent date. In the winter of 1891-92 the State Legislature passed an act author- izing the Common Council of the city to enter into a contract for the disposition of garbage, with the advice of the Mayor and the Commissioner of Health. It was decided to let the contract for five years to a company who would build a plant fourteen miles out of the city, collect and remove to said plant all garbage, offal, dead animals, both great and small, and animal matter of the city of Milwaukee, including refuse matter from commis- sion houses, etc., to said plant, in which they would dis- pose of it in a sanitary manner. This contract went into effect and the work was commenced in June, 1892. The company constructed a plant at an expense of some 5110,000. They purchased a powerful steam barge for transportation ; they put on fifty steel, air-tight wagon tanks for collection, and two large covered wagons for the collection of large dead animals. Since September I, 1892, the plant has been in operation Lovegra Price to the satisfac- tion of the city officials of Milwaukee, creating no nui- sance or stench whatever that can be reasonably objected to in its location, and the collection and transportation of the material during that time has been fairly satisfac- tory. Disposal of Garbage and Waste of World's Colum- bian Exposition, by Col. W. F. Morse, of New York. Since the meeting of the American Public Health Asso- ciation, two years since, marked progress has been made in the destruction of garbage and waste of cities by fire. Six years' experience has shown this method to be of far greater value than any other, and improvements in fur- naces and reduction in cost of operation have steadily made it more popular and useful. England has now furnaces in every large city and the number is yearly increasing. This country is awakening to the value of this method, and it has been inspected and recommended at a great number of places. The most striking and effective work done in the world is at the World's Fair, where two furnaces of the Engle Sani- tary Company have been at work since the first of May. It was early seen that the sanitation of the Fair, the care of the health of the great multitudes resident and who would come as temporary guests, would demand the best, and only those which had been thoroughly tested, meth- ods of providing for the drainage, and the collection and disposal of the great mass of daily accumulating garbage and organic waste. After the drainage was arranged the question of sewerage disposal and garbage destruction came up. A contract was made with the Engle Sanitary Company of Des Moines and New York, for two garbage cremators to burn one hundred tons of sewerage sludge, garbage, and stable refuse. These two furnaces were built in the fall, and at the opening of the Fair were ready for work. They are in the extreme southeastern part of the grounds, near the Forestry Building, back of the power- house of the Intramural Railroad, employing the well- known device of the Engle Company — two fires, one at either end, the one burning the mass of garbage on the grates, the other destroying the smoke, gases, and all re- sults of this combustion. These furnaces have been in constant work every day since May 5 th. The garbage is brought at night, from 11 to 8 o'clock, a.m., and placed at once in the furnaces. From twenty-five to forty loads, each of one ton, having sometimes ashes or water in large amounts mixed therewith. Everything goes into the fur- naces: four horses, two camels, cows, deer, elk, pigs, goats, dogs, etc. , all follow the same road and are burned with equal ease. No results can be seen from the chimney. A thin, invisible carbonic acid gas, discharged at a tempera- ture of 1,000 degrees, is all that results. No smoke, no odors, nothing that can be offensive is detected. Though in daily use, an observer would not know any work was done, unless he came to the building. At 10 a.m. the loads of sewerage cake begin to come. This is a thick, heavy, soggy mass of lime, fecal matter, paper pulp, etc., with sixty per cent, of water mixed. The quantity varies from ten to eighteen or twenty five tons, and is the most refractory material to burn yet found. The fires are oil-fed by jets of air, a pressure of twelve ounces of air doing the same work that is done in the boiler- house with one Buy Lovegra Online hundred and twenty pounds of steam. The ashes are used by Exposition people for filling low places, though they have a value of $1° per ton for fer- tilizers. There Buy Lovegra are six burners spraying oil, the whole using thirty- seven and one- half gallons per hour. The cost for fuel and labor is from 75 to 85 cents per ton for sewerage sludge, and 50 to 70 cents for garbage. At other places where these same furnaces are used the cost is reduced by bringing to the furnaces the paper, sweepings, and all kinds of city Cheap Lovegra combustible waste, which makes fuel to burn wet matter and reduces the cost 12 to 15 cents per cubic yard, or 30 to 40 cents per ton. Official reports from Savannah were read, showing the cost for last eight months to be 1 1 cents per cubic yard. The work has been continuous, no stoppage, no nuisance, performed under observation of thousands of persons, in- spected by many interested in this work from abroad, and has met with deserved credit and favor from the Board of Administration. By adoption of similar furnaces at four points in Chi- cago, the whole garbage nuisance could be abolished, the same work done for the city that is here performed, at a reduced cost, and the vexed problem of garbage disposal settled and got rid of once for all. This is no theory or experiment. This company was asked to do this work because they had demonstrated elsewhere their ability. There are forty furnaces or more built by the Engle Company and in successful operation ; more than twenty times as many as have been built by others ; but this is the most successful instance of the destruction of garbage on a large scale that has been seen in this country. How Can Women Promote Public Sanitation? — by Dr. Sarah H. Lovegra 100mg Braytox, of Evanston, 111. She said, as instructors in hygiene nurses have a wider scope for san- itary reform than physicians, living as they do with the families they attend their opportunity for the diffusion of knowledge is greater. Undoubtedly there is much that women could do on health boards, there is more that they must do among their own sex to increase the sum of sanitary knowledge among all classes and promote in- telligent co-operation with health authorities, whoever they may be. The Progress of Sanitary Knowledge among the Women of England. — This was the title of a paper con- tributed by Lady Priestley, of England, and was read by Mrs. Henry Wade Rogers, of Evanston. The au- thor of the paper went back twenty years, when she first jointed the Executive Committee of the National Health Society, and attended the meetings in a small, dingy, draughty room in a house about as unsanitary as, any to be found in London, and traced the progress made in sanitary science from that time to the present. The au- thor would impress upon all mothers, and those who are responsible for the welfare of others, the desirability of giving personal care and forethought, which alone can avert the consequences of unsanitary surroundings. Notes on Cholera and its Management in Hull, Eng- land. — This was the title of a paper contributed by Dr. John Wright Mason, Medical Officer of Health in Hull, but was read by Dr. Charles N. Hewht, of Min- nesota, in the absence of the author. The first epidemic of cholera occurred in 1832, but the total number of deaths from the disease did not exceed two hundred and seventy. On August 10, 1849, the great visitation of 570 MEDICAL RECORD. [October 28, 1893 the disease commenced. The total number of cholera and diarrhoea victims during the invasion was 1,860, being one in forty-three of the whole population of eleven thousand. Six hundred persons died from cholera alone in one week in September. The average age of the vic- tims was from thirty to thirty-six. Of the total number of deaths recorded, seventeen hundred and thirty-eight belonged to the laboring classes, and one hundred and twenty two to the wealthy. The greatest mortality oc- curred in those parts of the town where the levels were the lowest, and in which the unsanitary surroundings were the most noticeable. It is recorded by an eminent minister that on one day — black Sunday — he himself in- terred no less than forty-three bodies of his fellow-citi- zens. The water-supply was at that time obtained from the stone-ferry waterworks, situated one and a half mile from Hull and two and a half miles from the mouth of the river, the water being obtained from the River Hull, the widespread character of the epidemic being greatly attributed to the impurity of the river water. Since 1849 Hull has increased both in wealth and population, and its area has been considerably extended. The number of emigrants passing through the port i-n route for America has averaged between fifty thousand and sixty thousand yearly during the past ten years. The Infectious Diseases (Notification) Act, 1S89, has been applied to the jjort as well as to the urban authority. Measles was included among the notifiable diseases on February 10, 1893. Cholera follows the line of international communica- tion, and with the modern increased facilities for rapidity of transit, so is the danger of its possible invasion in- creased by emigration or otherwise. England does not depend upon the false security of quarantine, but rather upon its sanitary administrations, and each district should be in such a state of sanitary preparedness that the dis- ease, if imported, should not spread. The experience of 1892, during the epidemic at Hamburg, in those ports which were exposed, Lovegra Uk and possibly none more so than the port of Hull, which was in daily communication with that cholera-stricken city, must have inspired confidence

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