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©tiitxxarij. JOHN C. PETERS, M.D., Very few of the older medical men who took part in the active medical affairs of this city during the past genera- tion are with us. Retiring upon laurels faithfully won by hard work, they are being replaced by younger and equally aspiring men, who in their turn will give place to those who are to follow. But during a long life of usefulness, no one gone or to come, has left or will leave a more enviable record than the good and talented John C. Peters, late lopressor hct of this city, whose death took place at Williston, lopressor 25mg L. I., on Saturday, October 2 1 , at the age of seventy-four years. The one who would write so feelingly of his contemporaries, and whose biographies were such masterpieces of literary merit, fine sentiment, and interesting incident, has himself be- come the subject of the last good-by, and has ended his career with a reverent amen. The readers of the Record have often, in times gone by, been delighted and edified by the productions of his facile and cultured pen in the lines of thought in which he was lopressor 50 interested. Few wrote with greater force or perspicuity on the subject of epi- demic influences and their dependence upon germ dis- eases. His wide reading, unbiassed judgment, and pro- gressive spirit kept him at all times in the lead of all movements calling for high scholarship, and the lofty attainments of good citizenship. Dr. Peters had practised medicine in New York since 1842. He was born in this city, and was educated at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, and the medical universities of Berlin and Vienna. He was one of the founders, and at one time was President, of the New York Pathological Society, and for many years was editor of the Society's proceedings, was President of the Buy Lopressor Online New York County Medical Society, and a member of the New York Academy of Medicine, and of nearly all leading medical societies in the city. He was the physician and personal friend of Washington Irving. Dr. Peters made a special study of Asiatic cholera, and his library on cholera was said to be the most complete in the country. He wrote many pamphlets on this subject. He was associated with Dr. Edmund C. Wendt in preparing a treatise on chol- era, and in 1866 wrote Peters's " Notes on Asiatic Chol- era," a standard work. Dr. Peters suggested new rem- edies in the treatment of consumption, Bright's disease, and membranous croup. In 1873 he travelled through the South and Southwest to study cholera, and afterward assisted in preparing a report on cholera which was pub- lished by order of Congress. In 1878 he did valuable service in the threatened yellow- fever epidemic. Dr. Peters published treatises on diseases of the brain and nervous system, and assisted Dr. Alexander S. Wother- spoon in translating Rokitansky's " Pathological Anat- omy." With Dr. Frederick G. Snelling and others he published "Materia Medica " (1856-60). He retired from active practice about eight years ago, and gave his time to consultations alone until three years ago, when he removed to his Long Island home, where he was stricken with paralysis, to which he ultimately suc- cumbed. Personally, Dr. Peters was a lovable, modest, earnest man, kind and considerate to all, respectful of true merit, and instinctively inspiring in all who knew him a becoming and sincere appreciation of the well- rounded character of a Christian gentleman. i October 28, 1893] MEDICAL RECORD. 565 3acUt^ ^^avts. NEW YORK COUNTY MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. Stated Meeting, October 16, i8gj. S. B. W. McLeod, M.D., Presidext, ix the Chair. Dangers to the Public Health of New York from Over- crowded Population. — Dr. E. G. Jaxe\v.a.v opened a discussion upon this subject with some extemporaneous remarks. The overcrowding to which he referred was more especially in tenement-houses. Small tenements on the east and west sides were being torn down, and tall ones, five or six stories high, twenty-five feet frontage, were being erected in their place and were planned to house as many as twenty families. This was said to be the result of economic conditions, the price of ground necessitating tlie erection of high buildings. But the same thing was observed above the Harlem River, where much ground was unoccupied and could not be so dear Moreover, the very fact of increasing the number of fami- lies in a house, or the number of people on a given area, tended to make the price of ground higher still. Thus it would be seen that one solution of the problem of dear ground consisted in restricting the size of the tenements. It had been said that the new and larger tenements were more healthful than the old, but Dr. Janeway thought this would probably be only temporary, for with age they, too, would become contaminated with filth and Lopressor Online disease, and the greater overcrowding would make them more dangerous. One could hardly find a more marked contrast between the homes of the people of two great cities, as far as it re- lated to overcrowding, than existed in New York and purchase lopressor Philadelphia. These two cities Buy Lopressor were located only ninety miles from each other, and had not' a great difference of climate and surroundings. Philadelphia was built up largely of small houses, with one or only a few families in each house, while in New York the tenement plan pre- vailed, with ten to twenty families in a building. With a view to determining the effect of overcrowding upon the health of the population, Dr. Janeway had compared the vital statistics of Philadelphia and New York during the past ten years, and had found that in Philadelphia the mortality-rate per thousand each year had been about twenty-two per cent., while in New York it had been about twenty seven per cent., the percentage varying somewhat in each city from year to year, but always re- maining higher in New York. Then it would be ex- pected that certain diseases, especially contagious diseases, would be more prevalent in New York, and so it was, typhoid fever being an exception — as might be expected when one considered the difference in the water-supply. In New York the water was brought a long distance, and was comparatively pure ; in Philadelphia it was obtained from the Schuylkill, not far from the city, Lopressor 100 Mg lopressor 50 mg and it was said that typhoid fever there was mostlv due to infection of the water. Since 1883, the lowest death-rate from typhoid fever for a single year in Philadelphia had been 579; in New York the highest number had not attained to 500, yet the population of New York was considerably larger. The death-rate from phthisis, scarlet fever, diphtheria, and measles had been greater, in proportion to the population, in New York than it had been in Philadelphia, during the past ten years. The ratio should be about eight for New York, five for Philadelphia, whereas it had been about eight to four. Thus, for one year the number of deaths from phthisis in New York had been 5,160 ; in Philadel- phia, 2,636. In both cities, however, the death rate from this cause had been decreasing, a fact which he sug- gested might be due to spread of knowledge of the infec- tious nature of the disease. The deaths from scarlet fever in New York amounted to 1,242 one year; in Philadelphia, 29S ; and this was about the usual ratio be- tween the two cities. In conclusion. Dr. Janeway said it seemed to him that if New York allowed the erection lopressor 12.5 mg of such tall tene- ments to go on, we would see in the future serious re- sults, not only with regard to health, but also with regard to morality, and in case of riots difficulty in controlling the passions of the populace. The Gregarious Caucasian. — Dr. Charles A. Leale had learned at the anthropological department of the Columbian Exposition, that the Chinese had for centuries met one of the evils of overpopulation by sending an apparatus around on wheels in which infected fabrics Order Lopressor and articles were disinfected by dry heat, maintained a num- ber of hours at a temperature corresponding to the boil- ing point of water. History went to show that certain races were more disposed than others to live crowded to- gether. The white race seemed especially to live in thickly populated districts. Negroes and Indians were more disposed to scatter. The evils of overcrowding had been forcibly impressed upon Dr. Leale in his rela- tions to the St. John's Guild. A short absence from overcrowded apartments sufficed to bring about a won- derful improvement in the condition of sick or weakly children. Dr. J. R. MacGregor thought the e.xperience of med- ical men in different parts of the city proved that over- crowding was far-reaching in its evil results. Young men saw more cases of infectious diseases than the older members of the profession, which showed that such dis- eases were more prevalent among the poor in the over- crowded districts. The height of buildings and number of tenants should be governed by the width of the streets. The dangers of overcrowding were enhanced by the prac- tice of making workshops of the apartments and by the unhygienic habits of the tenants, due partly to ignorance, partly to poverty, and partly to want of privacy. The so- called air-shafts, or wells, between buildings, were channels for conveying foul odors, dirt, and contagion from one floor to another. Doctors should act as missionaries and warn the tenants and the public of their danger. A Sure Check to Overcrowding. — Dr. J. Lewis Smith gave some experience during his twenty years' connection with infant asylums in relation to overcrowd- ing. Early in his experience, when children were brought from surroundings of filth incident to narrow tenements and were put into a hospital where the conditions were little better, he was told by the person in charge that his visits would be useless, for all children who entered there died, and it proved to be so until the conditions were changed. Death of the little ones was a sure check for overcrowding. A pitiful instance, which Lopressor Mg was but one of thousands, was that of a family in a new apartment- house, containing perhaps twenty families, the plumbing supposed to be modern and sanitary, but not so in fact. The father was out of employment, the mother was haggard from care. The largest of the two or three rooms occupied by the family was about twelve feet square. In the front room a child lay, whose inspiration was guttural, its neck swollen, and presenting the familiar symptoms of malignant diphtheria. The mother said it had been sick four days, too sick to carry to the dispen- sary. In the lopressor 25 adjoining cold room were the three other children — five, seven, lopressor 12.5 and nine years of age — huddled together, trying to keep warm, and awaiting their turn to be stricken with the terrible malady. Two other chil- dren were still at the public school ! The mortality among children was further enhanced by women, compelled to work for Cheap Lopressor a living, putting their babies into the care of ignorant nurses, who gave them bad cow's milk and much opium. The society woman demanded a wet-nurse, and although her own babe might live, that of the wet-nurse almost invariably died. Thus, infanticide was practised in overcrowded New York al- lopressor 25 mg most as flagrantly as along the banks of the Ganges. And he had not yet mentioned the alarming extent to which abortion lopressor 50mg was practised. Dr. L. Laxdrs, whose office was in the lopressor price lower part of the city, said he had seen a great deal of the evil of over- 566 MEDICAL RECORD. [October 28, Lopressor Xl i<

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