meat, strong beef-tea, milk puddings, milk, and cocoa
should form the chief articles of diet. Sleep is of great
importance. If necessary, chloral, morphine, bromides,
may be administered. Iron and arsenic are the best drugs,
though drug treatment is of less importance than general
management. Rheumatic manifestations or heart com-
plications should be treated on general principles. In
chronic cases douches to the spine, shampooing, massage,
and gymnastics, are of value.
Spinal Paralysis of Syphilitic Origin. — This affection
is described by Erb under the title of syphilitic spinal
paralysis, and by Charcot as syphilitic transverse myeli-
tis. Kowalewsky has recently reviewed its clinical
features and differential diagnosis. It is of Levoxyl Vs Levothroid slow develop-
ment, occurring chiefly in men between the ages of thirty
and forty-five, and bladder disturbance is one Levothroid Generic of the
first symptoms. Many of the conditions Order Levothroid Online present re-
semble those of spastic paraplegia. But spasticity of
gait, when it exists, is not so marked as in lateral sclerosis.
Muscular rigidity and increase of deep reflexes are less
marked than in spastic paraplegia. There is always in-
crease of muscular irritability, exaggeration of response
to heat and cold, and tactile and analgesic response are
normal or shortened. An opposite effect is produced
in locomotor ataxia.
[October 28, 189;
A Weekly Journal of Medicine and Snrgery.
GEORGE F. SHRADY, A.M., M.D., Editor.
WM. Levothroid 75 Mg WOOD & CO., 43, 45, & 47 East Tenth Street.
New York, October 28, 1893.
IDIOTS AND OTHER BACKWARD CHILDREN.
In 1801, a wild boy was found in the forests of Aveyron,
in France, and brouglit to Itard, the friend and disciple
of Condillac. Hoping to find in the instruction of this
lad the verification of Condillac's philosophical theories,
Itard labored patiently for six years to develop his intel-
lectual faculties by means of sensations. The young sav-
age proved to be an idiot of low grade, and hence unfit
for the experiment. But the attempt to instruct him
satisfied Itard that it was possible to elevate the mental
condition of idiots. The facts he gathered together he
communicated to his pupil, the late Edward Seguin, who
entered upon the work as a labor of love, and in 1846
published his treatise on the management of idiocy.
This treatise placed him forever in the foremost rank of
modern psychologists. The work started by him at the
Bicgtre, in Paris, has been continued and brought to a
higher state of technical perfection by Bourneville. Or,
as the fact has been poetically expressed, " Bourneville
holds aloft the torch earlier lighted by Seguin."
Itard's pupil consulted nature as to the mode by which
the physical powers are cultivated and the mind educated
in the infant. So did Froebel ; and out of his axiom,
"There is nothing in the mind that was not first in the
senses," grew a Purchase Levothroid Online whole system of scientific sense-training,
with gifts, occupations, songs, and movement games.
The same idea Kant expresses in a more general way :
"All our knowledge begins with experience." Idiocy
meant to Seguin prolonged infancy — infancy without
grace and charm. The infantile fondness of idiots for
bright colors was utilized to teach them distinctions of
color and form. Their liking for playthings he turned to
good account by instructing them in number, form, and
size, through the medium of blocks, cups and balls, and
other toys. Words came next, and the meanings of words
were taught by pictures. Letters had their place later.
The eye, the foot, the hand, were educated by means of
steps, dumb-bells, and other gymnastic e.xercises. The
refractory organs of speech were moulded and manipu-
lated until they could utter the desired sounds. After
strict familiarity with things came ideas, at first con-
crete, then abstract as higher consciousness was attained.
Though long, this process triumphed. Seguin revolu-
tionized all the foregone conclusions concerning idiocy.
From that time the work has gone on steadily, though
slowly, in different parts of the world, in France, Amer-
ica, England, Germany, Levothroid Vs Levothyroxine Denmark, Holland, and Switzer-
land. In the Progres Medical, June 24, 1S93, Bourne-
ville publishes a most interesting record of some of the
work done in Paris, at the Bicetre, where the treatment
is at once medical, hygienic, and pedagogic. The pa-
tients are first taught to hold themselves erect, then to
walk. Their joints Levothroid Synthroid are exercised and their limbs are sub-
jected to friction. Baths and the arts of hydrotherapy
aid in physical development ; and physical culture is
advanced by systematized movements, free gymnastics,
fencing, and dancing. For the development of speech
and correct pronunciation, methods in vogue in deaf and
dumb asylums are utilized. Every device is employed to
render number and calculation real and intelligible.
Exercises in the training of vision are many. Some of
these are carried on out of doors in gardens laid out for
the purpose. There are gardens of surfaces, of geomet-
ric figures, flower gardens, vegetable gardens, orchards,
woods, fields of grain, vineyards, etc. Music occupies
an important place. There are songs and movement
games, together with instruction in vocal and instrumen-
tal music. Care is taken to teach the children to distin-
guish different kinds of sounds. The very first lessons
are in the care of the person. Object lessons are given
upon the manikin, Levothroid 125 Mcg or upon the child himself, in all the
complicated movements required for dressing and undress-
ing, and in the many automatic acts that the normal
child learns by imitation. The children at the Bicetre
are taught to wash their faces and hands, to lace their
shoes, etc. They learn through doing. Technical train-
ing for some trade completes this medico pedagogic sys-
tem of education. There are seven workshops, where
the pupils receive instruction in carpentry, in locksmith
work, in printing, tailoring, the making of shoes, baskets,
brushes, twinef etc. The results of this method are sur-
Bourneville Order Levothroid classifies idiocy as symptomatic of hydro-
cephalus, microcephalus, arrested development of convo
lutions, congenital or pathological maltbrmations of the
brain, meningitis or meningo-encephalitis, myxcedema,
or cerebral tumors. The paper referred to contains -a
comparative study of the skulls and photographs of the
brains of twenty-two idiotic children, of ages varying
from two to seventeen years. Their idiocy was depend-
ent upon different conditions, and their death due to a
variety of diseases. They were all typical idiots, and be-
longed to the same class as the twenty-five patients
operated upon by Lannelongue.
The treatment had been that of the system just de-
scribed, with results encouraging alike to the physician
and to Levothroid 0.1 Mg the humanitarian. The author calls attention to
the fact that many backward children are moral imbe-
ciles. They are unstable, pers-erse, impulsive, wayward,
and disorderly. They reach a certain stage of develop-
ment. The moral qualities are in abeyance, though the
intellectual faculties have fair possibilities. Moral im-
beciles possess as much mind as is consistent with a total
absence of character.
From close observation and wide experience in the
care and treatment of every class of imbeciles, Bourne-
ville arrives at six very definite conclusions, somewhat at
variance with theories that have a certain vogue. The
surgical treatment of idiocy, he thinks, rests Synthroid Vs Levothroid upon a
hypothesis which is not confirmed by pathological anat-
omy. That premature ossification of the cranial sutures
October 28, Levothroid 100 Mcg 1893]
exists in the different forms of idiocy is denied, a partial
synostosis being always an exception. Lesions which
cause idiocy are generally profound, extensive, varied,
and unlikely to be influenced by craniectomy. The
diagnosis of premature ossification and thickness of the
skull is not possible with our present means of investiga-
tion. The reports of most surgeons show that the results
of operations are negative, slight, or doubtful. Serious
accidents may follow surgical intervention, as paralysis,
convulsions, or death. The medico-pedagogic treatment
founded by Seguin, and brought to perfection by the
introduction of new processes, applied with care and
patience and for a sufficiently long time, permits us al-
most always to obtain decided improvement, and often
enables idiotic children to attain some value and social
The Levothroid 88 Mcg reason that more is not accomplished for idiots
and backward children, lies with the parents themselves.
It is very difficult to persuade them that their children
are mentally defective. Too often the physician's state-
ment is not believed, and nothing is done in the way of
special training. Thus valuable time is lost. Yet idiocy
is by no means an uncommon disorder. According to
one estimate, said to be very much within the truth, six
persons in every thousand are idiots, or of such imperfect
development as to be of little or no service to the com-
munity. Levothroid 100 Mg In view of the facts of the case, it is evident
that the public has much to learn concerning its duties to
idiots and other backward children. As it has been
demonstrated that the great majority of the feeble minded
are susceptible to physical and mental improvement, the
claim is not unjust that all backward children are entitled
to special education and training. Ten to twenty per
cent, who are received and trained in institutions become
bread-winners ; thirty to Levothroid 25 Mcg forty per cent, can help them-
selves in many ways and are but slightly burdensome to
their families ; and the remainder always need custodial
care. From any point of view, from that of selfishness,
of humanity, sentiment, religion, or social economics,
there seems to be no definite and satisfactory reason why
the feeble- minded should not be trained into relative
usefulness and become at least Levothyroxine Vs Levothroid partially self-supporting.
fluid, while the root " cele " is in common use in medi-
cine to indicate a cavity.
While laparotomy may not be strictly accurate, there-
fore, creliotomy is not inherently much better.
CELIOTOMY VS. LAPAROTOMY.
We commented some time ago on the sudden adoption
of cceliotomy in place of laparotomy by some of the Levothroid Vs Synthroid sur-
geons of this city. While not denying a certain etymo-
logical justification to the former term, it seemed to us
not altogether unobjectionable for various reasons. Dr.
R. P. Harris has been Generic Levothroid kind enough to send us his origi-
nal pamphlet, published in 1890, in which he presents with
much learning the argument for the change of nomen-
clature. The argument amounts essentially to this :
that cxlia means " belly," while lapara means " flanks,"
hence coelia is the proper word. To Is Levothroid Generic this it must be
said, however, that ca-lia, according to Foster, has had
in the past four different meanings, viz., the abdomen,
the intestines, the fseces, and " any cavity of the body
such as the socket of a bone " (Hippocrates).
As we stated before, the word has already been adopted
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